EM, Soil Structure and Plant Diseases S12
Tokeshi, H.1 , Jorge, M. J. A.1 , Sanches, A. B.1 & Harada, D. Y.2
1) Department of Plant Pathology, University of São Paulo, Brazil; 2) Mokiti Okada Foundation, São Paulo, Brazil
|By practising sustainable agriculture with green
manure and effective microorganisms (EM), several farmers maintained their agricultural
productivity and profitability while, at the same time, controlled erosion, reduced
irrigation and suppressed attack by soil pathogens such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
without using agricultural chemicals. One farmer who applied EM in two areas was chosen
among others and his areas were compared with similar soils near those for study. Soil
compaction, basic water infiltration rate (BWIR), paint infiltration, porosity and effect
of moisture on the production of apothecia of S. sclerotiorum confirmed previous data.
The reduction of irrigation frequency, higher water infiltration, increasing water-holding capacity, and absence of compaction are apparently the causes of the transformation of soils from conducive to suppressive to S. sclerotiorum. A 50% reduction in time needed to transform the traditional agricultural soil into a sustainable soil, which is one of the great benefits of the system under study.
Faeth, P., Rapetto, R., Krall, K., Doi, W. & Helmers, G. (1991): Paying the farm bill. U.S. Agricultural policy and the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture. World Resources Institute, 1709. New York, Av. N.W.Washington, D.C. 20006, USA. 71p.
Karlen, D. L., Wollenhaupt, N. C., Erbach, D. C., Berry, E. C., Swan, J. B., Wash, N. S: & Hordahl, J. L. (1994): Crop residue effect on soil quality following 10-years of no-till corn. Soil & Tillage Research (in press).
Reganold, J. P., Palmer, A. S., Lockhart, J. C. & MacGregor, A. N. (1993): Soil quality and financial performance of biodynamic and conventional farms in New Zealand. Science, 260, 344-349.