Book of Abstracts
11th IFOAM Scientific Conference
11-15 August 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
1) Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI),Serdang 43300, 2) University of Agriculture Malaysia, Serdang 43300.
The rice field is recognized as the most sustainable environment. This may no longer be true after the dawn of the green revolution agriculture which advocate double cropping of modern rice varieties requiring increased fertilizer inputs for high yields with concomitant usage of pesticides and removal of crop residues. Organic based rice farming provides an avenue to reduce inorganic fertilizers with minimal use of pesticide for sustainable high yields. Research was conducted on the management of several organic sources to enhance productivity and as mitigation strategy for methane emission. The organic sources evaluated were Sesbania rostrata, a green manure; rice straw; composted rice husk; palm oil mill effluent (POME); organic based fertilizer, Complehumus; and a group of effective microorganisms products (EM) and Bioferti.
Incorporation of Sesbania rostrata at 8 t/ha was insufficient to enhance rice yield. POME gave a significant yield increase of 848 kg/ha in the first season. The POME treatment at rates equivalent to increase soil organic carbon by 2 and 3% had a residual effect over six consecutive seasons. The mean yield increase for POME rates tested was 326 kg/ha for the six seasons. Nitrogen can be reduced by 50% in the first season and thereafter gradually increased without sacrificing yield. The various organic sources complemented with EM not only increased yield by about 10% but also decreased methane emission except with rice straw.
A favourable release of exchangeable ammonium nitrogen at later growth stages of rice when supply from soil is inadequate was obtained with treatments Sesbania + Bioferti + N, Sesbania + POME and Complehumus. Additionally, adoption of Integrated Pest Management strategies succeeded in curtailing the indiscriminate use of pesticides. Organic based rice farming can safeguard and preserve to some extent the rice environment from degradation.
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