Book of Abstracts
11th IFOAM Scientific Conference
11-15 August 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Smolin, N. & Akhmetov, S.
Mordovian State University, Russia, Saransk 430000, Farming Agriculture chair
Increasing the number of specialized grain farms led to creation of the grain system of
agriculture with use of saturated grain crop rotations. The utilization of grain system in
the farm agriculture causes a fast and significant reduction of soil fertility, a high
level of nutrient removal together with the main and waste products of grain crops will
increase the humus mineralization process, deteriorateagrochemical and agrophysical
properties of the soil and decrease the agrophytocenosis resistance.
The problem of soil fertility reproduction is of great importance in the improved grain system of farming suggested by us. Under this technology in the grain crop rotation only the grain part of the crop is removed from the field during harvesting while straw concurrently with thrasing is ground by a combine egnipped with the grinding mill IIYH-5 and is scattered on the soil surface. Nonmouldboard subsurface loosening without soil turning is used as the main soil cultivation. Straw introduced into the soil surface is decomposed under the influence of cellulosolitic microflora. Liquid mineral fertilizers KAC, ?KY and potassium chloride dissolved in water are introduced into the top soil beneath the mulchered straw by the AIIIA-2 aggregate. Sowing is performed by a conventional drill.
The research performed showed that a 6-year utilization of straw as a fertilizer improved the humus balance of the crop rotation. Under the traditional grain system of agriculture /without use of straw) 2,8 t/ha of humus were mineralized for six years (with protection means - ever more 3,3 t/ha) while utilization of straw significantly improved the humus state.
A 6-year introduction of straw improved the soil nutrient regime. Grain production increase due to the use of straw was on the average 0,2 t/ha per each crop of rotation or 1,2 t/ha in a six - course crop rotation.
During the straw decomposing process the decay products negatively effect the grain crop germination. For accelerate the straw decomposing process artificially, in particular, increasing the activity of cellulose decomposing strains of microorganisms we invented the enzyme biopreparation - activator of cellulosolific microflora (ACM) which is under testing now. The ACM use will make it possible to exclude illeffects of the straw decay products and accelerate the reutilization process of nutrient and their return to the plant feeding circulation. Of great importance is straw processing by the ACM preparation before the Winter crop sowing, when there is practically no time left for the natural decomposition of the organic residua and the decay products negatively effect the winter crop germination. Moreover undecomposed straw is a source for development of infections and pests of cultivated plants.